Geoff Smith

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tvis


Through Vial Impedance Spectroscopy. A process analytical technology based on the measurement of the electrical impedance spectra of a solution contained within a freeze drying vial during the process of freeze drying. In this method the electrodes are external to the vial, hence the term "through-vial" impedance spectroscopy. The methodology for monitoring product temperatures and drying rates was first developed by researchers at De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom.

See www.dmu.ac.uk/tvis for example applications for this analytical method
 Geoff Smith (19 August 2017)