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Definitions (1005)

1.

2   1

empirical temperature


A property that is the same for any two systems that are in thermodynamic equilibrium with each other.
Source: antoine.frostburg.edu

2.

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diffusion


The mixing of two substances caused by random molecular motions. Gases diffuse very quickly; liquids diffuse much more slowly, and solids diffuse at very slow (but often measurable) rates. Molecular collisions make diffusion slower in liquids and solids.
Source: antoine.frostburg.edu

3.

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Zeeman effect


The splitting of spectral lines when an external magnetic field is applied.
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4.

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xenobiotic


A substance which is not normally found in a living thing.
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5.

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wavelength


The distance between adjacent peaks (or adjacent troughs) on a wave. Varying the wavelength of light changes its color; varying the wavelength of sound changes its pitch.
Source: antoine.frostburg.edu

6.

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volume percentage


Volume percentages express the concentration of a component in a mixture or an element in a compound. For example, 95% ethanol by volume contains 95 mL of ethanol in 100 mL of solution (NOT in 100 mL of water!)
Source: antoine.frostburg.edu

7.

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titration


A procedure for determining the amount of some unknown substance (the analyte) by quantitative reaction with a measured volume of a solution of precisely known concentration (the titrant).
Source: antoine.frostburg.edu

8.

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temperature


Temperature is an intensive property associated with the hotness or coldness of an object. It determines the direction of spontaneous heat flow (always from hot to cold).
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9.

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second order reaction


A reaction with a rate law that is proportional to either the concentration of a reactant squared, or the product of concentrations of two reactants.
Source: antoine.frostburg.edu

10.

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saponification


The hydrolysis of esters using hot sodium hydroxide solution to produce the salt of a carboxylic acid. Usually saponification refers to the hydrolysis of esters of fatty acids to manufacture soaps.
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