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Definitions (155)

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Directionality


is the inner logic of an analytical study design. A study follows a forward directionality when first the exposure groups are defined based on the study factor and then the participants are followed-u [..]
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Validity (synonyms are conformity


of ‘measurements’ means that the “measurements” taken are correct. The “measurements” might be responses to questions, results of diagnostic tests, or physical measurements such as height [..]
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Unpaired statistical test


is a version of a statistical test suitable for unpaired data i.e. situations where different groups of individuals are measured once only resulting in a single measurements (per assessed characterist [..]
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Univariate


an adjective used in statistics to describe situations or procedures where one single variable only is considered or involved.
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Unit of analysis


in epidemiology is in most cases the human individual. However, ecological studies regard entire populations such as countries, states, or cities as units of analysis. Some epidemiological studies may [..]
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Timing


refers to the chronological relationship between the onset of the study in real calendar time and the observation of the study factor and outcome. In completely “prospective” studies both the stud [..]
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The scientific method


is framework for conducting research that has been developed over the last centuries and is largely dominated by Western perspectives. The scientific method states how knowledge should be acquired: by [..]
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Tertiary prevention


are public health efforts that are directed towards the clinical stage of a disease. Tertiary prevention aims preventing or minimising the progression of a disease or its consequences. A randomised co [..]
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Target population


is the population about which one wants to draw conclusions. The actual population, and with that, the sample may or may not be representative of the target population. The target population is partly [..]
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Systematic sampling


is a form of probability sampling in case the sampling frame covers the entire target population and shows no periodicity. Systematic sampling implies to evenly sample over the entire target populatio [..]
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