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Definitions (206)

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psycinfo


The computerized version of Psychological Abstracts maintained by the American Psychological Association (APA). It is an excellent resource for the mind-body aspect of CAM in that it obviously speaks directly to CAM interventions regarding mental disorders, stress management, and behavioral processes as well as neuroimmunology.
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a-b design


One of several possible research designs included under the single-case experimental research method. It involves documenting over a period of time—say, several days or weeks, for example—the signs/symptoms/behavior presented by a client who (a) is initially in need of treatment not yet provided and (b) is then provided with the treatment. The [..]
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a-b-a design


A slight extension of the A-B design in that it involves an additional third phase wherein the treatment is removed and, consequently, the subject is returned to the baseline phase. The intent is to demonstrate the outcome or consequence of a return to the subject’s initial status of not receiving treatment.
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a-b-a-b design


A slight extension of the A-B-A design in that it involves an additional fourth phase wherein the treatment is reintroduced, thereby creating an intermittent reversal from baseline to treatment that is repeated.
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accreditation


See What are Certification, Licensing, and Accreditation?
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allied and complementary medicine


A database maintained by the Health Care Information Service of the British Library. It addresses resources available in complementary medicine, palliative care, and numerous professions allied with medicine.
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alpha level ()


The alpha level also known as the probability of a Type I error. When testing a null hypothesis, a decision to reject the null is always accompanied by an admission that there is a certain probability or likelihood that one may be making an error in doing so, thereby committing the so-called Type I error. That probability level is called the alpha [..]
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alternative hypothesis


An alternative hypothesis (a) is a well-justified prediction of a study’s anticipated outcome in the context of the study’s population; (b) is consistent with the prediction of the research hypothesis, although referring to the study’s population; and (c) typically contradicts the prediction of the null hypothesis and, hence, is literally an [..]
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anonymity


This provision in a research study ensures that the researcher has no way of associating a research subject’s identity with any information received from that individual.
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apa publication manual


This manual represents the stylistic format and requirements for scientific communication in many health science and behavioral science areas. It is published by the American Psychological Association (APA) and was most recently updated in 2001 (5th ed.).
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