cdiac.ornl.gov

Website:https://cdiac.ess-dive.lbl.gov/
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Definitions (304)

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atmosphere


A standard unit of pressure representing the pressure exerted by a 29.92-in. column of mercury at sea level at 45 degrees latitude and equal to 1000 g/cm2.
Source: cdiac.ornl.gov

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atmosphere


The envelope of air surrounding the Earth and bound to it by the Earth's gravitational attraction. Studies of the chemical properties, dynamic motions, and physical processes of this system constitute the field of meteorology.
Source: cdiac.ornl.gov

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climatic optimum


The period in history from about 5000 to about 2500 B.C. during which surface air temperatures were warmer than at present in nearly all regions of the world. In the Arctic region, the temperature rose many degrees, and in temperate regions, the increase was 1.0 degrees - 1.7 degrees C. In this period, glaciers and ice sheets receded greatly, and t [..]
Source: cdiac.ornl.gov

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geostrophic flow


A type of movement where the Coriolis force balances exactly the horizontal pressure force.
Source: cdiac.ornl.gov

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longwave radiation


The radiation emitted in the spectral wavelength greater than 4 micrometers corresponding to the radiation emitted from the Earth and atmosphere. It is sometimes referred to as terrestrial radiation or infrared radiation, although somewhat imprecisely. M
Source: cdiac.ornl.gov

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planetary albedo


The fraction (approximately 30%) of incident solar radiation that is reflected by the earth-atmosphere system and returned to space, mostly by backscatter from clouds in the atmosphere.
Source: cdiac.ornl.gov

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radiation balance


The difference between the absorbed solar radiation and the net infrared radiation. Experimental data show that radiation from the earth's natural surfaces is rather close to the radiation from a black body at the corresponding temperature; the ratio of the observed values of radiation to black body radiation is generally 0.90 - 1.0.
Source: cdiac.ornl.gov

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terrestrial radiation


The total infrared radiation emitted by the Earth and its atmosphere in the temperature range of approximately 200-300K. Because the Earth is nearly a perfect radiator, the radiation from its surface varies as the fourth power of the surface's absolute temperature. Terrestrial radiation provides a major part of the potential energy changes nec [..]
Source: cdiac.ornl.gov

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trace gas


A minor constituent of the atmosphere. The most important trace gases contributing to the greenhouse effect are water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, ammonia, nitric acid, nitrous oxide, ethylene, sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, dichlorofluoromethane or Freon 12, trichlorofluoromethane or Freon 11, methyl chloride, carbon monoxide, and carbon [..]
Source: cdiac.ornl.gov

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water vapor


Water present in the atmosphere in gaseous form; the source of all forms of condensation and precipitation. Water vapor, clouds, and carbon dioxide are the main atmospheric components in the exchange of terrestrial radiation in the troposphere, serving as a regulator of planetary temperatures via the greenhouse effect. Approximately 50 percent of t [..]
Source: cdiac.ornl.gov


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