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Definitions (561)

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ionizing power


A term to denote the tendency of a particular solvent to promote ionization of an uncharged or, less often, charged solute. The term has been used both in a kinetic and in a thermodynamic context. See also Dimroth-Reichardt ET parameter, Grunwald-Winstein equation, Z-value
Source: chem.qmul.ac.uk

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amphiphilic


A compound containing a large organic cation or anion which possesses a long unbranched hydrocarbon chain, e.g. H3C(CH2)nCO2-M+ H3C(CH2)nSO3-M+ H3C(CH2)nN(CH3)3+X- (n > 7). The existence of distinct polar (hydrophilic) and non polar (hydrophobic) regions in the molecule promotes the formation of micelles in dilute aqueous solution. amphiprotic ( [..]
Source: chem.qmul.ac.uk

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thermolysis


The uncatalysed cleavage of one or more covalent bonds resulting from exposure of a compound to a raised temperature, or a process in which such cleavage is an essential part. See also pyrolysis
Source: chem.qmul.ac.uk

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energy profile


See Gibbs energy diagram, potential-energy profile
Source: chem.qmul.ac.uk

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activated complex


An activated complex, often characterized by the superscript , is defined as that assembly of atoms which corresponds to an arbitrary infinitesimally small region at or near the col (saddle point) of a potential energy surface. See also transition state
Source: chem.qmul.ac.uk

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glossary of terms used in physical organic chemistry


(IUPAC Recommendations 1994) B Continue from terms starting with A
Source: chem.qmul.ac.uk

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base


A chemical species or molecular entity having an available pair of electrons capable of forming a covalent bond with a hydron (proton) (see Brønsted base) or with the vacant orbital of some other species (see Lewis base). See also hard base, superbase
Source: chem.qmul.ac.uk

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basicity


For Brønsted bases it means the tendency of a compound to act as hydron (proton) acceptor. The basicity of a chemical species is normally expressed by the acidity of the conjugate acid (see conjugate acid-base pair). For Lewis bases it relates to the association constants of Lewis adducts and -adducts
Source: chem.qmul.ac.uk

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basicity function


See acidity function
Source: chem.qmul.ac.uk

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bathochromic shift


Shift of a spectral band to lower frequencies (longer wavelengths) owing to the influence of substitution or a change in environment. It is informally referred to as a red shift and is opposite to hypsochromic shift (blue shift). IUPAC PHOTOCHEMICAL GLOSSARY (1992)
Source: chem.qmul.ac.uk


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