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Definitions (90)

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conjugate vaccine


Conjugate vaccines contain carrier proteins which, when combined with antigens, enhance the type and magnitude of the immune response. Examples include Haemophilus influenza B, Meningococcal conjugate and Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.
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acquired immune deficiency syndrome


A medical condition where the immune system cannot function properly and protect the body from disease. As a result, the body cannot defend itself against infections (like pneumonia). AIDS is casued by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The virus is spread through direct contact with the blood and body fluids of an infected individual. High ri [..]
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adjuvant


Adjuvant is a compound used to increase antigenicity and to prolong the stimulatory effect of vaccines particularly of those containing inactivated microorganisms or their products (eg diphtheri and tetanus toxoids).
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aefi


Adverse effects following immunisation.
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allergy


A condition in which the body has an exaggerated response to a substance (eg food or drug). Also known as hypersensitivity antibodies. Proteins produced by the body to neutralise or destroy toxins and disease-carrying organisms.
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antigen


An antigen is defined as anything that provokes an immune response, which is specific to that material. It can be a single molecule, or a more complex structure such as a bacteria or virus.
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antitoxin


Antitoxin is a solution of antibodies derived from the serum of animals immunised with specifice antigens (eg diphtheria antitoxin) used to achieve passive immunity or for treatment.
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attenuated


Weakened pathogens (organisms that produce disease eg a virus) are attenuated to make them safe when used in a vaccine.
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autism


A lifelong disability that affects the way a person communicated and relates to other people. It usually involves poor social interaction, poor social communication and limited imagination.
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bacteraemia


Bacteraemia occurs when bacteria get into the bloodstream. Bloodstream infection is also sometimes called septicaemia, which implies greater severity/clinical significance. A wide variety of bacteria can cause bacteraemias, the two most common being Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
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