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Definitions (517)

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commercial sector


Generally, nonmanufacturing business establishments, including hotels, motels, and restaurants; wholesalers and retail stores; and health, social, and educational institutions. However, utilities may categorize commercial service as all consumers whose demand or annual usage exceeds some specified limit that is categorized as residential service.
Source: nrc.gov

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fuel rod


A long, slender, zirconium metal tube containing pellets of fissionable material, which provide fuel for nuclear reactors. Fuel rods are assembled into bundles called fuel assemblies, which are loaded individually into the reactor core.
Source: nrc.gov

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personnel monitoring


The use of portable survey meters to determine the amount of radioactive contamination on individuals, or the use of dosimetry to determine an individual's occupational radiation dose.
Source: nrc.gov

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rem


One of the two standard units used to measure the dose equivalent (or effective dose), which combines the amount of energy (from any type of ionizing radiation that is deposited in human tissue), along with the medical effects of the given type of radiation. For beta and gamma radiation, the dose equivalent is the same as the absorbed dose. By cont [..]
Source: nrc.gov

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terrestrial radiation


The portion of the natural background radiation that is emitted by naturally occurring radioactive materials, such as uranium, thorium, and radon in the earth.
Source: nrc.gov

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atom


The smallest particle of an element that cannot be divided or broken up by chemical means. It consists of a central core (or nucleus), containing protons and neutrons, with electrons revolving in orbits in the region surrounding the nucleus.
Source: nrc.gov

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atomic energy


The energy that is released through a nuclear reaction or radioactive decay process. Of particular interest is the process known as fission, which occurs in a nuclear reactor and produces energy usually in the form of heat. In a nuclear power plant, this heat is used to boil water in order to produce steam that can be used to drive large turbines. [..]
Source: nrc.gov

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atomic energy commission


The Federal agency (known as the AEC), which was created in 1946 to manage the development, use, and control of atomic (nuclear) energy for military and civilian applications. The AEC was subsequently abolished by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 and succeeded by the Energy Research and Development Administration (now part of the U.S. Departme [..]
Source: nrc.gov

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atomic number


The number of positively charged protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Source: nrc.gov

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attenuation


The process by which the number of particles or photons entering a body of matter is reduced by absorption and scattered radiation.
Source: nrc.gov


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